With regard to health, saturated fat is most looked at for its perceived influence on heart disease through interacting with cholesterol and plasma triglycerides. Several meta-analysis have been carried out on saturated fat and the perceived risk of heart health. In these meta-analyses, there’s scant evidence that saturated fat increases risk for Cardiovascular Diseases. However, replacing some saturated fat with polyunsaturated may indeed reduce risk. Studies on epidemiology find relative risk ratios (RRs) close to a value of 1, which is zero effect. So there doesn’t seem to be a strong relationship between saturated fat intake and risk for various conditions such as Cardiovascular Disease, Stroke, and Coronary Heart Disease.
Effects on cholesterol levels
Saturated fats do increase cholesterol levels relative to polyunsaturated fats. Of course in any study done on macronutrients (fat, carbs, or protein) removal of a macronutrient needs to be replaced by another to balance calories out. Many studies replace saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats, which reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels. This may lead to the conclusion that saturated fats raise them, when the possibility that they are inert is probably more realistic. Diets high in monounsaturated fats are also beneficial for certain parameters of heart health. Causation has not yet been placed on (dietary) cholesterol for causing heart problems. It is definitely correlated, with the ratio of HDL cholesterol to Total cholesterol being the strongest predictor.
At least one study found that substituting dietary monounsaturated fatty acids with saturated fats via vegetable oils (40% fats overall, 16% of the chosen fat in each group) was associated with slightly more anger in participants, although this study also noted a spontaneous decrease in activity which may have contributed.
Food intake is usually behind weight gain or loss, so things that may modify food intake may also indirectly modify weight changes. It’s now been found that fats per se are more effective than carbs and possibly proteins at increasing diet satiety after a meal. When looking at what fats are consumed, saturated fats seem comparable to PUFAs (Polyunsaturated fatty acids) (but greater than MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids)) in increasing it  while other studies note either comparable effects or an unreliable increase in saturated fat versus MUFA (no changes in whole day values, but following a meal there was a spike).
Saturated fats either result in less food intake and appetite or they do not differ from unsaturated fats.
Switching dietary MUFAs out for saturated fatty acids in otherwise healthy young adults appears to decrease spontaneous activity levels.
It is known that diet interacts with androgen levels (known to be related to reduced androgen concentrations in vegetarians and reduced androgen levels in cohorts with lower fat intakes), which is thought to be related to dietary fat since putting men on a low-fat (high fiber) diet reduces circulating androgens whereas the opposite exists as well (higher fat diet at 41% of calories, with a higher intake of saturated fat, increasing testosterone). The magnitude of these changes is a low fat diet reducing testosterone in older men by 12% and an increase in dietary fat in young men increasing testosterone by 13%. There may be a slight suppression of testosterone concentrations following ingestion of a high fat meal (fatty acids not specified) which is thought to be related to chylomicrons and NEFAs (increase in serum by ingestion of dietary fat) may suppress LH-induced testosterone synthesis.Elsewhere, androgen precursors have been noted to be increased without an increase in testosterone.
Dietary fat in general (with a slight trend towards saturated fats) are now known to positively regulate testosterone and androgen production. The magnitude of changes, however, are fairly small (below 20%)
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